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TECHNICAL MONUMENTS OF POLAND II.

 

          1. Łowicz
          2. Przemyśl
          3. Ostroda-Elbąg
          4. Duszniki Zdrój
          5. Ciechocinek
          6. Zakopane-Kuźnice

Zygmunt RAWICKI

senior editor

PZITB vicepresident

Janusz STADNIK

editor

PZITB

Stanislaw KARCZMARCZYK

editor

PZITB

 

ROAD BRIDGE ON THE SŁUDWIA RIVER

Location: the Sludwia river near Lowicz

Administrative unit: Town Council in Lowicz

Owner: State Property

 

HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

Relatively a small road bridge on the Słudwia river near Lowicz, soon after its erecting in 1928 and opening in 1929, has become an object known all over the world as the first steel, totally welded road bridge. Professor Stefan Bryła, a well-known Polish scholar and constructor, preceded its designing by many years of studies on the strength of welded joints, their result being the first scientifically worked out rules of such joints in building constructions. The bridge - similarly as many other structures in Poland - was damaged during World War II (one of its abutments was blown up). After the war it was re-erected and the whole construction was used for another thirty years. The road from Warsaw to Poznań is a part of an international route, with a very intensive traffic of heavy vehicles. The traffic lane is 8.0 m, the usage width of professor Bryla's bridge - 6.2 m, what made vehicle traffic very difficult. The bridge built in 1929 was no longer sufficient, it was necessary to build a new one. A good occasion to cut the 'old bridge' into scrap! Thanks to intensive efforts of the Metal Construction Committee of the Polish Association of Civil Engineers and Technicians, among others Tadeusz Brzozowski's who personally engaged in successfully solving the matter, the bridge was saved and professor Bryta's construction was recognized as 0 class monument. Professor Bryta's antique bridge was in 1977 moved 25 m up the river by Mostostal Enterprise from Warsaw. At the initial stage it was used as diversion bridge when a new, wider bridge was being built, then it became a beginning for an open air museum organised in the area.

 
Joints
 
Professor Stefan Bryla (1886 - 1943)
A distinguished constructor and a great Pole
 
Current map
 
Bridge on the Słudwia river -cross section
 

   

CIVIL DESCRIPTION

Professor Bryta's road bridge construction consists of two main truss beams, with a straight lower flange and a parabolic upper one. Theoretical truss span is 27 000 mm, theoretical height in the middle of the span is 4300 mm, the space between lower joints and thus the length of stringers is 3375 mm, the bridge span in the clear is 26 000 mm. The width of the bridge between the main beams axes equals 6760 mm and in the clear between the girders 6200 mm. On both sides there are pavements, each 1500 mm wide. The main beams are joined by cross bars and horizontal bracings situated in the plane of lower flanges, they have no bracings in the upper flange. Cross bars are joined with the main truss posts by stiff joints and stringers are fixed to the cross bars by means of trapezoidal plates. The bridge was originally designed as riveted construction. Then, also under the leadership of professor Bryla, Wenczeslaw Poniz, Ph.D.Sc. redesigned riveted joints into the welded ones. The exception was the construction of the stringers and cross bars of the bridge (where the influence of a new way of their shaping and joining was clearly visible) which originally were designed as welded joints. The bridge on the Sludwia river was an unquestionable proof of the usefulness of welding in engineering constructions, not only for technological but also economical reasons. The total mass of welded construction was 95 tonnes, while the anticipated mass of the riveted one was to be 70 tonnes, thus the construction mass was reduced by 17%. Although in those times the price of 1 kg of welded construction was higher than 1 kg of the riveted one, the welded bridge cost less than an analogical riveted one would have cost.

Bibliography:

 

Photo by: Andrzej B. Nowakowski

Bridge on the Słudwia river - joints
 
 
Present state photographs

 

THE PRZEMYŚL CITADEL

Location: Some elements of the Citadel are situated in the area of Przemysl city and in such settlements as Siedliska, Bolestraszyce, Dunkowiczki, Orzechowce, Letownia, Helicha, Optyn, Grochowce, Pralkowce, Zurawica, Glinne, Jaksmanice.

Administrative unit: Przemysl Communal Council

Owner: State Property

 

HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

In the years 1527 -1660 Przemysl was surrounded by defensive walls which replaced the hitherto existing earth rampart. The defensive walls were part of the bastion walls system. When Przemysl, after the first partition of Poland, was incorporated into Austro - Hungarian Monarchy the Austrians demanded demolition of the walls deteriorated by time, allowing to leave untouched their southern curtain along Basztowa and Slowackiego streets up till Plac na Bramie. In the years 1853 -1856 the Central Austrian Fortification Board gave orders to surround the whole city area by a continuous line of earth ramparts and moats, 16 km of total length, reinforced by numerous cannon posts. Invention of new fire arms systems forced the army of Austro - Hungary to build a new type of fortresses - ring-shaped and linear ones. In 1878 the innovative works in the Przemyśl Citadel were very much advanced, in effect creating first class fortifications. In 1878 paying tribute to many works managers, inspectors, foremen, civilian and military engineers who greatly contributed to build this object the authorities honoured them with high state awards. On 17 September 1914 a battle for the Citadel lasting 182 days started and it took a toll of 80 000-100 000 of Austro - Hungarian, German and Russian soldiers, while the battle itself gained the name of "Eastern Verdun".

 
"80 000 -100 000 of Austro - Hungarian, German and Russian soldiers..."
 
Current map
 
Entrance Gate to Salis - Soglio fort after the 1914 fights

CIVIL AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

'The Przemysl Citadel' fortification complex, erected in the second half of the nineteenth century and preserved till today, is a fine and rare example of military engineering building in the world. The complex was built in three stages, the first one (1853 - 1857) was to surround the city by 16 km long earth ramparts and deep moats, reinforced by a great number of cannons. In 1878 the second stage started, it was to modernise the Citadel by erecting fortresses 3-5 km distant from the ramparts. These are polygonal fortresses with inner yards, initially built of bricks, then of concrete, hiding under a thick cover of earth barracks, shelters, magazines, underground corridors, lifts and stairs. The most magnificent is Salis Soglio fort in Siedliska, as well as the central fort in Zniesienie.

 
The Przemyśl citadel
 
Reconstruction of fort I Salis Soglio'
worked out by J.I.K. Wielgus - according to J. Bogdanowski, F. Forstner's archival plans and measurements

 

In 1885 steel and steel - concrete floors and lowered armoured cupolas were introduced. (Forts in Orzechowce, Letownia, Bolestraszyce and Grochowce). Each fort was furnished with its own electricity, water pumps, sewage, ventilating-fans, searchlights, means of communication as well as a system of inner obstacles such as bars, minefields, barrages and the like. The newest objects were built using reinforced concrete and steel protective shields. When building bunkers of the Przemysl Strengthened Area reinforced concrete constructions, made of high quality cement and reinforcing steel, were used to erect one or two storey objects. New armament and perfect armour provided full air-tightness and safety for the staff. The walls were 1.20 - 2.3 m and the floors 1.20 -2.20 m thick.

Bibliography:

Copies of characteristic historical and present designs
Map of defensive cannons distribution in the Przemyśl Citadel,
excepting field fortifications from 1914.
1854-1857   Iníerfield forts of infantry (close defence)
Ramparts of ihe fortified camp Scattered fort of close defence
1873-1887   Artillery and concentrated forts from about 1880. armoured (1898-1900)
Single wall artillery forts Közeli védelem páncélozott erődje
Citadel fort Armoured fort of close defence
Stationary artillery batteries Interfield forts of close defence
Central ramparts and supporting line Double rampart artillery forts from ahout 1880, armoured (1896-1900)
1892-1914   Double rampart artillery forts from about 1380 rehuirt as close defence fort (1896-1900)
Armoured concentrated forts of 'Einheitsfort' type Single rampart artillery (ort modified for close defence
Armoured fort of close defence Ramparts of the fortified camp I adapted for close defence
    Stationary batteries - interfield and coupled
 
Przemyśl 1980
 
Cross section of the armoured cannon tower M 02

 

THE ELBLĄG - OSTRÓDA CANAL

Location: Shipping lane from Elbląg to Ostróda

Administrative unit: Ostróda -Elbląg Navigation

Owner: State Property

 

HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

 
 
Current map

 

In the Middle Ages and in later times the only water route joining the area of Ostróda and llawa with the Vistula and the Baltic sea was the river Drweca. As early in the 9lh century it was a significant artery for the Prussian tribes inhabiting this territory. Its significance increased when the Prussian lands were conquered by the Teutonic Order. It then became an important shipping lane, joining the western part of the Mazovian and the eastern part of the llawa Lake Districts with the Lands of Chełmno, Dobrzyn, Kujawy and Pomerania. A great number of Teutonic castles, such as Zlotoria, Bratian, Brodnica, Golub, were built along the Drweca river, which proves the importance of the shipping lane. In the 16th century due to the growing demand for wood and its rich resources in the neighbourhood of Ostróda some enterprising tradesmen from Gdansk took an interest in this lane. It was already at that time that the idea of joining the nearby lakes with the Drweca originated. Yet for many years nobody could solve the problem of difference of water levels in the lakes around Ostróda, llawa and Milomlyn and the water level in the Druzno lake in the neighbourhood of Elbląg. A realistic plan how to overcome this obstacle was presented in 1825 by an engineer J.J. Steenke. He proposed to solve the problem of difference in water levels (in a 9.6 km stretch it amounted to 104 m) by using a slipway. The realisation of the project started in October 1848. Water connection from Iława through Milomlyn to Elblag was realised in 1858 and after two years of accomplishment works, on 28 October 1860 the first ships sailed down the route. The section joining Milomlyn and Ostróda was completed in 1872 and the one between Stare Jabłonki and Ostróda in 1876. During World War II the canal fittings were severely damaged. After the war the first passenger ship from Elblag to Ostróda sailed in July 1947, thus initiating the lane for tourists.

 
 
 

CIVIL AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

The longest inland canal in Poland 129.8 km

(the system length):

Ostróda - Elbląg: 82 km

Ostróda - llawa: 48 km

Ostróda - Stare Jabłonki: 16.8 km

Milomlyn- llawa: 31 km

Slipways. The slope of land between the lakes north of Milomlyn and the Druzno lake in Zulawy is 99.5 m. To overcome this slope five slipways were built. They belong to the most interesting and unique technological canal fittings in Europe. The slipway appliances lower a ship or any other sailing vessel onto a lower situated canal leading to the next slipway. Thus it is possible to overcome, what in any other way would be impossible, the slope of land stretching over 9.6 km.

Sluices. When building the Elbląg - Ostróda canal the water level in most of the lakes belonging to this water system was levelled to 99.5 m above sea level. The remaining differences were levelled by means of four chamber sluices.

Technological fittings. Apart from slipways and sluices there are some othertechnological appliances in the Elbląg- Ostróda canal system. Weirs, by-channels and safety gates are among them.

 

 
 

ACCESSIBILITY AND INFORMATION

Regular navigation takes place only in the section Ostróda - Elbląg. In the section Milomlyn - Iława the ships sail only when booked by tourists groups. The section Ostróda - Stare Jablonki - Staszkowo is available only for sailing boats and canoes and it belongs to the zone of silence. On the lakes Drweckie in Ostróda, the Jeziorak in llawa and on the Drużno lake there are sailing trips organised for tourists. The Elbląg - Ostróda canal is open during summer season from 1 May till 30 October.

Bibliography:                                                           

•  "Informator Turystyczny", Wyd. Centralny Ośrodek Informacji Turystycznej, O/Olsztyn i O/Gdańsk, 1998

•  „Kanał Ostródzko - Elbląski" - mapa turystyczna, Wyd. Okręgowe Przedsiębiorstwo Geodezyjno - Kartograficzne „OpeGieK" sp. z o.o., Drukarnia Elbląg

•  „Kanat Ostródzko - Elbląski" - mini przewodnik, Wydawnictwo BESSA

Photo by: Andrzej Stachurski, Mieczysław Wieliczko, Kazimierz Centkowski

 

PAPER -MILL IN DUSZNIKI ZDRÓJ

Location: Duszniki Zdroj (woj. Dolnośląskie - Lower Silesia) ul. Kłodzka 42

Administrative unit: Town Council of Duszniki Zdrój and Head Office of Paper-mill Museum

Owner: State Property

 

HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

 
Current map
 
In the southern wall there is an original latrine on stone brackets.

The first paper-mill in Duszniki (the German name: Reinertz, later Bad Reinertz) was probably built around mid 16th century. In 1560 an Ambrosin Tepper sold the mill to Nikolaus Kretschmer who modernised it and in 1562 started the production of paper anew. In 1591 the building was seriously damaged by flood, only its stone walls remained. Gregor Kretschmer, Nikolaus' son, rebuilt and modernised the paper-mill in 1605. The ortagonal entrance pavilion on the bridge - viaduct over the river comes from this period. Gregor Kretschmer also improved technology of production, supplying water directly from a mountain spring and applying new methods which secured the paper produced here resistance to moisture, bacteria, insects and made it long-lasting. In the 17lh century the paper from Duszniki was called "everlasting". Rudolf II, the Austrian Emperor who ruled Silesia at that time raised Kretschmer to the rank of nobility. In 1709 the von Kretschmers sold the mill to the Hellers family. In 1739 the Hellers improved the technology by introducing the so called "Dutchman". In 1750 the King of Prussia awarded the Hellers a hereditary title of Royal Paper-maker. At the time of Napoleonic wars the paper-mill fell into decay and in 1815 it was sold by auction to Viehr( Wiehr). In 1847 in the paper-mill they started to use the so called groundwood , that is mechanically processed wood, instead of linen rags. In 1938, the last of the Wiehrs family wanted to demolish the old paper-mill and to build a modern plant. Provincial Conservationist of Historical Objects in Breslau, dr G. Grundman opposed it. Efforts were made to found a regional museum here, yet World War II interrupted them. In 1960 Provincial Conservationist of Historical Objects in Wrocław, architect M. Przyłęcki, took care of the destroyed and brought to ruin paper-mill. In the years 1962 -1965 the paper-mill was renovated thanks to funds from Provincial Conservationist of Historical Objects. In 1965, at the suggestion and thanks to the efforts of J.M. Kowalski from Katowice and M. Przylecki, as well as the town authorities and a group of local enthusiasts Museum of Paper-making was initiated. Such institutions as, among others, Cellulose - Paper Institute, Provincial Union of Regional Industry and Ministry of Forestry and Timber Industry helped considerably and on 26 July 1968 the Museum was opened. Its first manager was J.M. Kowalski. With time a show of the last stage of vat paper manufacturing was organised in it. Today the object is a worldwide known specialist museum (in 1992 it became an independent cultural institution! and an outstanding technical historical object in Europe. After serious damages during the 1998 flood it was renovated and is used again. It is very popular with tourists who often come to visit it.

 

CIVIL AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

The complex of the old paper-mill consists of two parts joined functionally by a connecting corridor and an entrance pavilion. These are: a) the main building erected on rectangular view, from stone in the part of cellars and basement and in the upper part as a wooden and nogging-piece construction. A high shingle gable roof over the wooden construction. In the hipped roof ends three rows of dormer windows. The eastern gable very much ornamented, of baroque forms with distinct volutes crowned with triangular tympanons. In the basement a production-show room with paper pulp vats and sieves. In the upper part an entrance hall, a corridor, exhibition rooms and office administration rooms of the Museum. Visitors are attracted by original wooden construction (beams, poles, angle braces) of the interiors from the 17th century (renovated in the sixties of the 20th century) and by a rectangular stone renaissance portal from about the mid-sixteenth century. In the southern wall there is an original latrine on stone brackets. The windows in the northern facade in frames crowned with semicircular palmettes. In the middle of northern hipped roof end there is a two storey shuttered bay covered with gable roof. On the first floor fragments of the interior painting decorations from the 17"' and 18th centuries (renovated after 1960) can be admired.

    1. Production storehouse, with a basement, three-storey with a high gable roof. Wooden shuttered construction. Shingled hipped roof ends with three horizontal rows of windows - ventilators. There are remnants of a winding machine in the eastern wall.
    2. Connecting corridor. An annex between the main building and a storehouse functioning as a corridor covered with a shed roof. In 1965, fulfilling the demand of the Chief Headquarters of Fire- Brigades a double flight of reinforced concrete stairs was built. From the connecting corridor an entrance to the staging (high ground floor) and the yard (basement)
    3. Ortogonal entrance brick pavilion on the viaduct joining Kłodzka street over the bricked riverbed of the Bystrzyca Dusznicka river. Front door and windows in plain frames crowned with semicircular palmettes. The pavilion covered by octahedral shingled cupola crowned with a mast with a tin wind vane and an openwork initials G.K. and the year 1605.
    4. In 1965 in the southern edge of the yard an exhibition umbrella gable roof was erected. It was covered with asymmetric shingles .Boundary parts and basement poles (a kiosk and storehouse) made from square stone. In an orderly yard between the paper-mill (A,B) and an umbrella roof (E) an exhibition of historical machines and tools used in paper manufacturing.

    Paper-mill Museum is open daily, except Mondays.

    Paper-mill in Duszniki. General view from the north
     
    Paper mill in the 16th century. Dipper.
     
    Paper-mill in Duszniki. General view from the north.
     
     
    Location plan. Drawing by M. Przyłęcki. A - paper-mill, B - drying chamber, C - connecting corridor, D - entrance pavilion, E - exhibition umbrella roof, F -  housing estate boiler house heating also the Paper-mill(outside the Museum).

     

    Bibliography:   

     

    Photo by: Roman Sołdek, Tomasz Szarski

     

    GRADUATION TOWERS IN CIECHOCINEK

    Location: Ciechocinek, ul. Tezniowa

    Administrative unit: Spa Production Works, ul. Solna, Ciechocinek

    Owner: Ciechocinek Spa Enterprise Company Ltd,ul Kosciuszki 10, Ciechocinek

    .

    HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

    Poland lost its own salt resources in result of the first partition in 1772, as the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in Galic (Halicz) Rus were overtaken by Austria. In 1773 king Stanislaus August Poniatowski called into being an Ore Committee the aim of which was to superintend the development of national mining and metallurgy. Intensive geological researches brought about discovery of salt springs in eight places. In 1788 the information about salt springs existence in Slonsk crown lands in the village of Ciechocinek was confirmed. After the third partition (1795) south- Prussian Mining Committee started a new series of research in the Kujawy region. In the spring of 1798 Alexander von Humboldt (1769 -1859) joined the research. He confirmed the necessity of making use of the natural resources of salt springs and building saltworks in Ciechocinek. Stanislaw Staszic (1755 -1826), a priest, reformer and economic activist, described the technology of brine reduction in the so called graduation towers. On 10 June 1824 the State Committee of Profit and Treasure signed a contract "to build and furnish the salt-works in Ciechocinek" as well as "to evaporate salt from salty waters in Ciechocinek and Slonsk springs and to sell it". J. Graff presented the plans of saltworks and graduation towers worked out on the basis of earlier design from 1816. Building works, supervised by J. Graff, started on 4 July 1824. Having found the optimum technology of reducing and evaporating brine and after numerous attempts the production started on 21 October 1832. Polish Bank was the investor and it remained the Works' owner till 1870, then Russian Treasure overtook the salt-works. Due to property changes and damages caused by a great flood in February of 1871 salt production was interrupted and many families in Ciechocinek lost their source of income. In 1853 the salt-works started to be unprofitable but at the same time the spa activities were becoming more and more profitable when in 1836 the first four bath tubs for taking salt spring baths were installed in a local inn. In 1845 the first brochure was printed, advertising the benefits of treatment using boiling lye and slime - the by-products of the process of salt evaporation in boiling pans. The fame of the spa was favourable to investment and thus development of Ciechocinek allowed the city charter which was bestowed on 11 November 1916, what was later confirmed by the Polish Government on 4 February 1919. In the city coat of arms there is a picture of a graduation tower.

     

    Current map
     
    Ciechocinek city plan, a fragment
     
    Chutes with salt spring on top of graduation tower
     
    Fragment of graduation tower construction

     

    CIVIL AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

    Technological system of obtaining salt by evaporation of brine in Ciechocinek consists of:

The storage tanks and the graduation wall over them are founded on five rows of oak piles dug in lengthwise spacing at about 1 m and in cross spacing at about 2 m. In graduation tower nr 3 the external piles are partly replaced by underpinning brick work from square granite cobble-stones. On the external rows and on the middle one there are longitudinal ground beams, on which the lower beams of 1 m deep storage tank are rested. The storage tank, divided into two segments in graduation tower nr 1 and 3, and into four segments in tower nr 2, is covered by boards declining outwards, thus allowing the salt spring to flow from the graduation wall to the storage tanks. The gates make it possible to direct the stream into a chosen segment of the storage tank. The worker servicing the graduation tower sets the multiplication factor of salt spring flow through the graduation tower, depending on the concentration which is measured by a brinometer. The skeleton of the graduation wall is a number of four-stand shackles at intervals of 2 m. Each shackle is supported by a pair of short angle braces lying on a beam placed across the storage tank; every second shackle is supported by long angle braces lying on inner supports and consisting of a deck cleat on two piles. In graduation tower nr 3 a deck cleat lies on clinker brick block on stone base of foundation. Between a long and a short angle brace a straining beam is placed. The shackle stands are coupled by lacings at 1/3 and 2/3 height and at the top by a bracketed girt on which floor boards and two salt spring distribution chutes are placed. The salt spring outflow is hand regulated through valves made of chestnut wood. The upper part of shackles is strengthened by St Andrew's cross, its tips supporting the grit. The graduation tower skeleton is longitudinally braced by long wind beams placed alternately on external stands and by longitudinal capping beams placed on external piles under the girt. Also rods fastening blackthorn sheaves are a kind of stiffening. Branches, about 150 cm long, are pointed with their thicker ends towards the inside of the graduation tower, while the thinner ends are shortened forming a visible surface of the graduation wall along which salt spring flows. The northern tops of the graduation tower are additionally supported by long angle braces fixed on concrete bases of foundation.

A scheme of graduation tower nr 3 - cross section according to I. Tłoczek
 
Graduation towers, a postcard from about 1895
 
 
Fragment of graduation tower construction
 
Blackthorn filling the graduation tower skeleton

ACCESSIBILITY

Location of graduation towers in the open park areas (Health Park, Graduation Towers Park, Millenium Park) allows a public access. Staying on the 'dry' side of the wall, that is the side along which salt spring does not flow presently, makes it possible for the spa visitors to benefit from natural inhalation which has become one of the elements of spa treatment. The southern section of graduation tower no 1 is accessible for visitors at a charge. There is also a possibility to see the salt works on achieving the owner's agreement and coordinating the term with the Administrative Unit.

Bibliography:

 

CABLE RAILWAY TO KASPROWY WIERCH

Location: Zakopane - Kuznice

Administrative unit: Polish Cable Railways- Zakopane

Owner: Polish Cable Railways - Zakopane

 

HISTORY OF THE OBJECT

On Sunday, 15 March 1936, after 227 days of construction, the first in Poland and at that time the longest in the world suspension cable railway to Kasprowy Wierch (the mountain top in the Tatra mountains ,1965 m above sea level) was opened. Its total length was 4182 m and the level difference between the final stations was 933 m. The whole of building works connected with the construction of the buildings and the masts was carried out at a record-breaking speed from 1 August to 27 February 1936. The initiator of its realisation was colonel Aleksander Bobkowski - vice-minister of transport and the president of Polish Skiing Union, president Moscicki's son -in-law. Building it was very controversial. Many Tatra lovers and State Council of Nature Preservation protested. Sports organisations and military circles were for building it, so was the press and especially "Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny" which urged the idea that"... the rail will bring The Tatras closer, allowing a quick and easy entry to the centrally situated Kasprowy Wierch and less fit people who can not walk in the mountains will be able to see the Tatras..." The general design of the cable railway was worked out by the Bleichert company from Leipzig and the shipyard in Gdansk, one of the main shareholders, supplied steel constructions and mechanical and electrical equipment. A. Deichsel's Cable and Wire Factory from Sosnowiec  ( the second shareholder) supplied steel cables. The architects Anna and Aleksander Kodelski made an architectonic design of station buildings while Oppman and Kozlowski's firm carried out building and reinforced concrete works. Building works were realised by Cable Railway Building and Exploitation Association Ltd. (popularly called 'Linkolkasprowy') whose 51% shares belonged to Polish State Railways. Works were being carried out in two or three shifts ( also in winter) and about 1000 workers were employed from all over the country, among them mainly the Highlanders from the Podhale region. The greatest problem was to transport building materials, cables and steel constructions. They were carried by people or on the backs of East Carpathian horses and later on by a helping cable rail suspended on temporary wooden supports. The building costs reached about 3.5mln prewar zlotys. Comparing it with the costs of cable railways built at that period abroad, the cost of the Kasprowy Wierch cable railway proved to be low. The sum was refunded already in 1939. At present transport capacity of the railway is 180 people/ h, at the travel speed 5 m/s. A cable car takes 30 people at a time. The railway has been continuously exploited for over sixty eight years, with essential periodical breaks in spring and autumn for a survey and repairs. The cable railway is going to be considerably modernised in the nearest future. In result the cable cars will be able to take 50 passengers at a time. Also the frequency of travelling will increase by 100%, that is to 360 people/h.

 
Current map
 
CABLE RAILWAY TO KASPROWY WIERCH

 

CIVIL AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

The route is divided into two sections:

    Travelling from Kuznice to Kasprowy Wierch, including the change, takes about twenty minutes. Travel speed of "Bobkociąg" as it is popularly called after the name of the main initiator is 5m/s and it slows down considerably when approaching the stations (1.25m/s). Steel cables of 45mm in diameter (lower segment) and 48 mm (upper segment) and of 30 tonnes in weight are suspended between the stations on six steel towers (3 in each segment) measuring from 14 to 32 m in height. The span length is from 123m to 998m. Each of the six steel truss masts is supported on four independent concrete bases of foundation of 25-30 m3 in volume. The shape of the bases is that of a truncated pyramid of near-square base. The buildings of all the three stations are made of concrete, reinforced concrete and granite. The foundations of the station building on Kasprowy Wierch rest on granite rock, on Myslenickie Turnie on limestone and in Kuźnice on hard clay. The railway is double track, that is each segment has two carrying ropes. Both segments have double electric drive - the main drive sets the cars in motion (5m/s) and a spare one, achieving the speed of 2m/s.Each of these drives has a separate toothed gear and is a complete whole in itself. In case of the main drive damage the driver switches electricity onto the spare one (there are two engines at the mid station on Myslenickie Turnie). This station is also equipped with its own electric power station (with a Diesel engine) and a generator in case of a break in electricity supply, e.g. due to a damage in an open wire conductor. Both cars of each segment are joined by one transmission rope of closed loop. The rope is stretched by means of a 6 tons concrete bloxed fixed on a rider of the lower rope wheel. The spare ropes of 19 mm in diameter are similarly assembled. The upper ends of the carrying ropes are fastened to reinforced concrete drums of 3.0 m in diameter, on which three roundings of ropes are put on and the lower ends are loaded with a reinforced concrete counterweight of 45.5 tonnes let into a special, 10 meter deep shaft. In this way the rope pull does not change in any position of the car and within all possible temperatures. Such a solution ensures counterweight rise or fall within 2.0 m only. The cars are made of light material and suspended on an eight-wheel truck. Each drive has three brakes: one on a drive wheel, the second one on an engine shaft, which is started by means of an electromagnet as soon as a button is pressed in the driver's cabin or in any car of a given segment. The third brake also operates on an engine shaft. It is automatically released when the speed limit is exceeded.

    Copies of characteristic historical and present designs
     
     

     

     
     
     
     

    Bibliography:

     

    Photo by: Zygmunt Rawicki

     

       
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